LSU College of Science
LSU  | Mathematics

Math 4038: Information for Students

For Fall 2016

(Math 4038 is cross-listed as Mechanical Engineering 4563.)

Time 1:30 -- 2:20 PM
Location 135 Lockett Hall
Calendar Our class meets from Monday, August 22, 2015 through Friday, December 2, 2015. The Final Exam will be Friday, December 9, 3 PM -- 5 PM.
Leonard Richardson Office 386 Lockett
Office Hours MWF 11:30am–12:30pm. I am available at many other times. Call or email first to make sure I'm able meet with you. I answer email many times daily---usually quickly.
Telephone 578--1568
WebAssign Each student needs to click the WebAssign link and self-register for Math 4038, section 1, with Instructor Leonard Richardson, and the following class key: lsu 7254 3219.

The textbook can be purchased either with or without WebAssign included. If you buy the book without WebAssign, you'll need to pay WebAssign a fee directly. If you buy the book with WebAssign you'll have a code to use so that you can show WebAssign that you have already paid their fee.

The publisher has the following package deal for LSU students in Math 4038:
The ISBN for the special package – 9781284080827
NET PRICE $174.00
Text and Syllabus Text: Dennis G. Zill and Warren S. Wright, Advanced Engineering Mathematics, 5th edition, Jones and Bartlett Learning. Publication Date: 2014. Be sure you obtain Edition 5 of the correct text, and also remember that there will be a charge for WebAssign if you need to buy it separately. According to the WebAssign website, the cost for their service with Zill's book is $69.95 if purchased separately. So be sure to take this into account. Webassign access includes the use of the online e-book version of Zill's book, but only for the semester of this course. One can print pages from the online e-book, but apparently only 10 pages at a time. (It is not required to have a solutions manual, but I think that most students find this helpful.) But you could save a considerable amount of money by using the online book at Webassign and printing the chapters that we study. I think it is better for you as an engineer to have the whole book as a permanent reference on your own bookshelf, but that is just my opinion.
The publisher has the following package deal for LSU students in Math 4038:
The ISBN for the special package – 9781284080827
NET PRICE $174.00

  1. Chapter 5: Series solutions of linear differential Equations. Bessel functions and Legendre functions.
  2. Chapter 12 -- 15: Fourier analysis, Sturm-Liouville problems and orthogonal function series. Separation of variables for partial differential equations with boundary conditions and initial conditions.

This course is cross listed with Mechanical Engineering 4563, though it is being taught only by the Mathematics Department. It is intended as a course that serves the needs of incoming graduate students in engineering who did not have such a course in preparation for graduate study, together with undergraduate Engineering majors who are preparing for graduate study.
The most important goal of this course is to teach the method of separation of variables in linear partial differential equations, with applications to important equations of classical physics such as the wave equation, the heat equation, and Laplace's equation. Originally this course was preceded by a course in ordinary differential equations that included Fourier analysis. The latter course no longer exists, so it is important in Math 4038 to teach enough Fourier analysis for the treatment of partial differential equations by separation of variables. There are also important applications of this method requiring more general orthogonal function expansions, such as Fourier-Legendre and Fourier-Bessel series. However, most students in this course have not studied the use of power series to solve ordinary linear differential equations. For Bessel functions, one needs also the Frobenius method for regular singular points. Thus the syllabus is organized as follows, with optional additional topics listed at the end.
Chapter 5, sections 5.1—5.3.2: Solution of ordinary linear differential equations by the method of power series, including the Frobenius method and its application to the solution of Bessel’s equation.
Chapter 12, sections 12.1—12.6.2: Orthogonal functions, Fourier series, Sturm-Liouville problems, Fourier-Bessel and Fourier-Legendre series.
Chapter 13, sections 13.1—13.8: Introduction to separation of variables, with application of the methods of Fourier expansions to boundary value problems involving the classical linear partial differential equations encountered most in applications.
Chapter 14, sections 14.1—14.3: Boundary value problems in other coordinate systems, making use of various orthogonal function expansions.
Chapter 15, sections 15.3—15.4: Introduction to the Fourier integral and Fourier transform.
Optional Additional Topics: Professors should feel free to add or replace some topics with others of comparable value, within the overall goals and purposes of this course. For example, if ones students seem to need the theorems of vector integral calculus, sections 9.12—9.16 may be appropriate, and one could include applications such as the derivation of the heat equation, for example. If there is time to teach the Fourier transform on the real line, one could solve the heat equation on the infinite line as another example.
Prerequisites Math 2057, plus one of the following: Math 2065, 2070, or 2090, or the equivalent.

Organization of this Class

Please understand that it is from the effort of working your way through assigned problems on paper that you learn mathematics. It is by no means sufficient to read solutions in a solutions manual! Although I hope you benefit from seeing solutions presented in class, you must not expect to learn how to solve problems just from watching. You must work out problems yourself, the hard way, in order to learn this work. Examination problems will be very similar to assigned homework problems. Thus your daily effort on homework problems will be strongly reflected in your test grades. Problems will be assigned using Webassign and they will be graded by computer. Your overall homework average converted to 100% basis at the end of the semester will replace your lowest hour test grade if that is to your advantage. If you do not understand how the computer software is grading your homework, please see me or email me so I can check online. Sometimes WebAssign is actually wrong.


These will be closed-book tests. You must keep your eyes on your own paper and do your own work. Do not communicate with your classmates during an examination. No books or notes are permitted, electronic, paper, or on any other medium. No electronic devices are permitted other than a calculator and a watch to check the time. No cell phones, smart phones, or internet-connected devices are permitted. The problems will be similar to those in the homework. However, note that the homework is done online and graded by computer without partial credit therefore. But tests will all be graded by me and there will be partial credit, since the work is at least as important as the answer. At the end of the course, you will have the benefit of replacing your lowest hour test grade with your homework average (converted to a 100-point scale), provided that one of your hour tests is lower than your homework average.


If you miss a test, it is your responsibility to speak to me as soon as possible to determine whether or not your excuse is acceptable. Here is some General Guidance regarding appropriate reasons for absence from a test or examination. If you are in doubt, ask me as soon as possible. In any case, your lowest hour test grade can be replaced by your homework average, as explained in the homework description below.


There will be three hour tests, worth 100 points each, and a two hour final examination, worth 200 points. Your lowest hour test grade will be replaced by your homework average on a 100% scale, if it is to your advantage. I will grade your hour tests and return them to you the very next class meeting each time. Your final test average will be the sum of all your test grades divided by 5. So your final test average will be less than or equal to 100. The minimum grade for each letter grade is as follows:
A+, 97
A, 93
A-, 90
B, 83
B-, 80
C+, 77
C, 73
C-, 70
D+, 67
D, 63
D-, 60
F, below 60
You should save all your graded work for future study and in case you think your final grade is in error.

Unhappy with your grades in Math?

Click here for a Six-Step Plan to improve your grades!


It is especially important not to fall behind. It is very important to attend class and participate in homework discussions. Please do not assume you can take care of difficulties later---see me for help as soon as possible if there is something you do not understand! You are responsible for all assigned problems---not just those which we go over the next day!

This is a course in which many students have studied the prerequisites at other universities or several years ago. Please ask questions both in class and after class when confused or unsure. It is not possible to anticipate each student's difficulties so you need to bring them to my attention.

Computer Support

The full power of Mathematica is available on many LSU computers, including those in the Math Department's computer labs and in the Library as well. Students can access Mathematica on Tigerware through their MYLSU accounts. The DSolve command can solve many differential equations.
There is a simplified Web Mathematica which is free to use online if you click on the link in this sentence. If you have not already had the Math Department's course in Mathematica, you might find it simpler to figure out how to use the Web Mathematica. It is not as versatile, but the Plot3D function is there and works fast for surface graphs. There is also a function-integrator which can be fun to use without having to learn very much about Mathematica. But do remember, this is an auxiliary resource. The time you spend working on problems on paper is the most important part of homework when it comes to learning the subject. With that understanding, Mathematica can be fun and helpful too.

Tests, Homework Assignments, and Downloads

Homework will be online using WebAssign. It will be graded on a scale of 1 point per problem or per part thereof for multi-part problems, and recorded. Please do every assigned problem on time! These assignments are not intended to be done in only one night. Start each assignment as soon as the previous one is completed! At the end of the course, you will have the benefit of replacing your lowest hour test grade with your homework average (converted to a 100-point scale), provided that one of your hour tests is lower than your homework average. In Webassign, you will have 6 tries to submit an answer for each question. However, after the first 3 tries, Webassign will change the question, usually by modifying one or more coefficients appearing in the question. Different students will also receive different randomized versions of the same type of problem. Please let me know if you have difficulties using Webassign. I have not used this homework system before and I will try to improve the settings as possible according to your experience with it. The computerized grading seems to be pretty good but it is not perfect. One needs to learn how to enter symbolic answers so that they will be understood.

The University has clear policies requiring academic honesty. If you email me about a pending assignment, I may send a hint to the whole class in answer to your question, not giving your name of course! If on the other hand you get a good idea from a book, or from talking with a friend, academic honesty requires that you acknowledge your sources openly. Above all, never copy directly from another person's written work as though it were your own. Remember that your own good name is irreplaceable. This is a sound principle which will serve you well throughout your life. Solutions that are copied tend to be recognizable as not coming from the student, and even the precise source can be identified frequently. This means that the honorable course of action is also the practical one.

Due at Classtime on this Date Assignments must be turned in on WebAssign in order to receive credit! Please let me know promptly if you are having difficulties with the online assignment system or if you feel the system did not grade your work correctly. Please note that I may extend the deadlines for some homework assignments, based on how far we progress in class. This is not something that can be predicted precisely, so check regularly on WebAssign to make sure you know the corrected due dates. You can instruct WebAssign to email you automatically when a change has been made in an assignment or an assignment schedule. The problems listed below are the ones appearing with randomized numbers on your WebAssignments.
August 22 Read this syllabus so you can ask questions about it in class. Obtain a copy of the text so that you are ready to begin work. If you have been away from mathematics courses for a few years, it may be necessary to review what you learned during the first three semesters of calculus. Visit the Webassign website and log in so you can see any pending homework assignments. (These will become visible beginning at 12 AM Sunday August 23, 2015.) You will need to learn what symbols or formats to use when entering answers to homework problems using Webassign. Please download and use this Student Guide containing the rules for entering mathematical functions and expressions as answers in Webassign.
September 30 Hour Test #1 today.
October 1 Please download Fall 2016 Test #1 with Solutions and overall class Statistics at the end.
October Please download Joseph Fourier's classic book On the Analytic Theory of Heat
October Download some supplemental files from classes taught in past years: Fourier-Bessel Series Examples and Fourier-Legendre Series Examples and also Norm and Zeros for Bessel functions and norms of Legendre functions. These downloads are not assignments. They are just supplements that add to what is in the text, including some illustrations that are better, in my opinion.
October 31 Second Hour Test
November 1 Please download Fall 2016 Test #2 with Solutions and overall class Statistics at the end.
November 28 Third Hour Test
November 29 Please download Test #3 in Fall 2016 with Solutions and overall class Statistics at the end.
December 2 Bring questions to review for the final exam. Bring a #2 pencil on Friday to fill out College of Science Teaching Evaluation.
Study for the Final Exam! This 200-point exam will cover the whole course in a uniform manner, so remember to review from the beginning of the course. Your final grade for the course will be the larger of the following two:
1. The grade guaranteed by the formula provided higher on this page.
2. One letter below the final exam grade. For example, if your final exam grade is A-, you are guaranteed at least a B- in the course.
Thus the final exam provides a safety net that supplements the calculations specified above.
December 5--8. Exam Week Office Hours MTWTh 2PM--3PM
Fri., Dec. 9,
3 PM -- 5PM.
Final Exam at 3 PM in room 135 Lockett Hall
December 11 Please download Fall 2016 Final Examination with Solutions and overall class Statistics at the end.